There have been documented cases of groundwater near oil and gas wells being contaminated with fracking fluids as well as with gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds. One major cause of gas contamination is improperly constructed or failing wells that allow gas to leak from the well into groundwater. Cases of contamination have been documented in Ohio and Pennsylvania [ 17 ]. Another potential avenue for groundwater contamination is natural or man-made fractures in the subsurface, which could allow stray gas to move directly between an oil and gas formation and groundwater supplies.
In addition to gases, groundwater can become contaminated with hydraulic fracturing fluid [ 18 ]. In several cases, groundwater was contaminated from surface leaks and spills of fracturing fluid. Fracturing fluid also may migrate along abandoned wells, around improperly sealed and constructed wells, through induced fractures, or through failed wastewater pit liners [ 19 ]. Unconventional oil and gas development also poses contamination risks to surface waters through spills and leaks of chemical additives, spills and leaks of diesel or other fluids from equipment on-site, and leaks of wastewater from facilities for storage, treatment, and disposal.
Unlike groundwater contamination risks, surface water contamination risks are mostly related to land management and to on- and off-site chemical and wastewater management. The EPA has identified more than 1, chemical additives that are used for hydraulic fracturing, including acids notably hydrochloric acid , bactericides, scale removers, and friction-reducing agents. Only maybe a dozen chemicals are used for any given well, but the choice of which chemicals is well-specific, depending on the geochemistry and needs of that well [ 20 ].
Large quantities — tens of thousands of gallons for each well — of the chemical additives are trucked to and stored on a well pad. If not managed properly, the chemicals could leak or spill out of faulty storage containers or during transport. Drilling muds, diesel, and other fluids can also spill at the surface [ 21 ]. Improper management of flowback or produced wastewater can cause leaks and spills.
There is also risk to surface water from deliberate improper disposal of wastewater by bad actors. The growth of hydraulic fracturing and its use of huge volumes of water per well may strain local ground and surface water supplies, particularly in water-scarce areas. The amount of water used for hydraulically fracturing a well can vary because of differences in formation geology, well construction, and the type of hydraulic fracturing process used [ 22 ]. The EPA estimates that 70 billion to billion gallons of water were used nationwide in for fracturing an estimated 35, wells [ 23 ].
Unlike other energy-related water withdrawals, which are commonly returned to rivers and lakes, most of the water used for unconventional oil and gas development is not recoverable. Depending on the type of well along with its depth and location, a single well with horizontal drilling can require 3 million to 12 million gallons of water when it is first fractured — dozens of times more than what is used in conventional vertical wells [ 24 ].
A typical shale gas well will have about two work overs during its productive life span [ 25 ]. Hydraulic fracturing itself has been linked to low-magnitude seismic activity—less than 2 moment magnitude M [the moment magnitude scale now replaces the Richter scale]— but such mild events are usually undetectable at the surface [ 26 ]. The disposal of fracking wastewater by injecting it at high pressure into deep Class II injection wells, however, has been linked to larger earthquakes in the United States [ 27 ]. At least half of the 4. Although it can be challenging to attribute individual earthquakes to injection, in many cases the association is supported by timing and location of the events [ 29 ].
Cost and performance baseline for fossil energy plants, Volume 1: Bituminous coal and natural gas to electricity. Revision 2. United States Department of Energy. Find a car: Compare side-by-side. Department of Energy. GREET 2 rev1. Shindell, F. Collins, J. Fuglestvedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Robock, G. Stephens, T. Takemura, and H.
Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing. Stocker, D. Qin, G. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y.
Oilfield, Process Treatments and Fuel Additives | Chimec
Xia, V. Bex, and P. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, — Online at www. Methane leaks erode green credentials of natural gas. Nature ,doi Cathles, L. Brown, M. Taam, and A. Howarth, R.
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Santoro, and A. Climatic Change doi Shindell, R. Santoro, A. Ingraffea, N. Phillips, and A. Methane emissions from natural gas systems. Background paper prepared for the National Climate Assessment. Sun et al. For instance, Zhao et al. This 3D printed electrodes configuration showed a comparable volumetric capacitance 2. Very recently, Zhu et al. The authors attributed these electrochemical improvements to the development of GO and GNP composite inks and partly to the benefit of using 3D printing to create periodic macroporosity to facilitate mass transport.
Battery fabrication is by far the most promising energy application of AM. Firstly, the number of publications on the use of AM to fabricate battery components is significantly larger compared to other applications, with the first report on this matter dating back to Secondly, it fully utilizes the geometrical advantage offered by AM, which allows fabrication of high aspect ratio 3D porous electrode configurations. However, in order to achieve these goals, further efforts on development of advanced energy storage materials with improved mechanical properties, small particle size and high viscosity are required, which could result in high rate capability and long cycle life.
Adsorption of CO 2 by solid sorbents zeolites, metal organic frameworks and nanoporous polymers presents itself as a lower cost alternative to CO 2 capture using amine solutions. Precise control over the sorbent materials design at nanoscale can enable atomic or molecular scale engineering of CO 2 binding properties, such as enthalpy of adsorption, as well as critical transport properties, such as diffusion coefficients that would directly determine the efficacy of adsorbents.
As was previously discussed, DIW is more than capable of fabricating, such monoliths. Microencapsulation of liquid sorbents within highly permeable shells, combines advantages offered by liquid sorbents, such as high capacity, high selectivity and tolerance to water, with advantages offered by solid sorbents, such as high surface area. In the last few years, AM gained some attention in CO 2 capture applications. Bara et al. However, the experimental work on their performance, in terms of determination of mass transfer rates for CO 2 absorption with aqueous sodium hydroxide is pending.
Reproduced with permission by NETL, Recently, Thakkar et al. Inspired by these results, they were also able to 3D print aminosilica adsorbents into 3D monoliths, which exhibited CO 2 adsorptive characteristics comparable to their corresponding powders. Similar to the application of AM in heterogeneous catalysis, DIW is capable of direct fabrication of 3D adsorptive monoliths. So far, there is a limited number of materials reported to have been processed via AM for CO 2 capture.
Therefore, further research into developing printable sorbent materials, such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks and nanoporous polymers, is required. At the same time, novel additive nanomanufacturing technologies, that can process sorbent materials, need to be developed, in order to gain a full control of design of mesopores. In case of production of MECS, via parallelized 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing microfluidic devices, new siloxane resin formulations that can be used in SLA need to be developed, in order to directly fabricate PDMS microfluidic devices and circumvent the need for fabrication of templates.
In thermal energy applications, nanoscale design can be used to develop materials with controllable thermal transport properties, for instance, graphene and CNTs have intrinsic thermal conductivities along the plane, comparable to that of diamond, however large contact resistance of such nanostructures need to be resolved. Metal AM technologies, such as SLS, are good candidates for thermal energy conversion applications, due to their ability to fabricate complex 3D geometries, that can significantly increase surface available for heat transfer.
Norfolk et al. Several structures were fabricated by this method with microchannels made of copper and aluminum, tested to find their burst pressures, which were demonstrated to be in excess of Thus the operating pressure could be set at 6. The conductivity of the two parts proved to be similar to the wrought ones. Fasano et al. The heat sinks were tested in the fully developed turbulent regime of an open loop wind tunnel, with the hydraulic diameter of mm, the average air velocity ranging from 3 to This was due to a secondary airflow and the interference of a boundary layer.
Wong et al. Consequently, complex fins could enhance the thermal transfer by increasing the surface area. In another work, Wong et al. The experimental results showed that increase in heat transfer area alone does not necessarily improve heat transfer performance, with coolant path through the heat sink geometry also playing a significant role. SEBM selective electron beam melting method was used by Guschlbauer et al.
The results shown that the electrical conductivity up to Recently, Roper et al. This in turn, allows the interface material to be selected for multifunctional applications, besides heat transport. As previously mentioned in the Introduction, Dede et al. The experimental results show that the AM fabricated novel heat sink design has higher COP relative to benchmark designs. This improved performance is attributed to the unique blended fin design leading to a reduced jet flow resistance.
The biggest challenge faced by utilization of AM in thermal energy applications, lies in the fact that metal AM technologies fabricate structures with internal porosity, which can have a detrimental effect on the thermal conductivity of heat exchanger. In the last decade, patents for a number of key AM technologies, mainly FDM and SLA, had expired, which led to a significant number of affordable desktop 3D printers being released into to the market.
This development in turn allowed more research facilitated by AM, which is evident from an increasingly growing number of publications that report on utilizing AM in in microfluidics as well as energy field. A limited number of commercially available materials can be processed via AM, which are mainly restricted to polymers and certain metals and alloys.
As previously mentioned, commercially available FDM and SLA polymers suffer from low temperature resistance and the absence of electrical conductivity, which restricts their application in energy devices. This drawback was realized by several 3D printing companies, for instance 3D Graphene Lab inc. Despite the obvious savings from less material waste, the cost of feedstock AM materials is another significant roadblock. More importantly, development of active energy materials is a nascent area of research in AM. The combination of the decreasing costs of structural AM materials and the increasing research interest in energy materials development is envisioned to facilitate the application of AM in fabrication of fully functional energy devices and bringing it closer to the commercial stage.
The use of DIW with multiple nozzles to fabricate different layers of electrochemical and photovoltaic devices was also discussed. The resolution of commercially available AM technologies needs to be significantly improved, in order to enter the realm of nanofabrication, to fully harness advantages offered by nanoscale design. Nanofabrication is classified as a set of processes and methods capable of producing nanostructures and devices with minimum dimensions lower than nm.
However, most energy applications covered in this review, require material design at sub nanometre scale 0. Energy storage takes place at nanoscale, predominantly in energy bonding one atom to another, and cannot be separated from energy conversion and transport, therefore matching the time scales of energy carriers by controlling their characteristic length scales and propagation velocities is essential in nanofabrication design for energy conversion and storage.
For instance, some traditional nanofabrication methods are capable of constructing CNT channels with inner diameters ranging from 0. This coupled with ability to fabricate structures with sub 30 nm dimensions, suggests that the development of AM technologies can enable AM to compete with traditional nanofabrication techniques sooner rather than later. In the past, design and optimization of energy devices was limited to the 2D domain due to the constraints of conventional manufacturing methods. With AM offering an almost complete design freedom, there is a need for development of new 3D design concepts.
This is all possible due to the intrinsic ability of AM to control local microstructure and chemical composition. For energy field to fully harness the advantages offered by AM, novel design strategies need to be developed. Small steps in this direction were taken by the scientific community in the last few years. For instance, the use of topology optimization, an approach where geometry topology is not defined prior to optimization, but instead is allowed to develop as part of an additive design process involving a number of sequential simulations, for the design of complex 3D heat sink structures which can be fabricated using AM was recently demonstrated.
Another design strategy can take form of integration of multiple energy processes within one system. As was previously mentioned, Marshewski et al. Challenges in terms of the need for new design strategies due to seemingly unrestricted geometry freedom offered by AM, which impose different types of constraints and require different process specific tools and rules that are significantly different from conventional manufacturing processes, were also recently discussed in several review articles. Recent advances in utilizing AM in energy applications, such as solar energy, electrochemical energy conversion and storage and hydrogen production show an enormous potential of AM as alternative manufacturing technology for renewable energy devices.
It is envisioned that AM can also accelerate the progress in developing processes for CO 2 capture and utilization. For instance sustainable polymers can be produced by alternating copolymerization of epoxides and CO 2 to form polycarbonates. Freight transportation of manufactured goods and components amounts to a significant part of global oil consumption. However, all of the AM technologies use electricity, therefore the electricity generated from renewable energy sources can be used to make it more sustainable.
Considering all of these factors, AM has a potential to become an ultimate sustainable manufacturing technology, as illustrated in Figure In conclusion, we have communicated the recent progress in additive manufacturing aimed at energy chemistry and material applications. A variety of commercially available AM materials and their properties were summarized and it was proposed that they can be utilized for fabricating structural components of energy devices, depending on the intended application. A number of reports on bespoke energy materials and how they can be additively manufactured with customized solutions were reviewed.
The limits of commercially available AM methods in terms of their ability for micro and nanofabrication as well as discoveries on what 3D functional energy structures can be created without design constraints were explored. This review also highlighted emerging and important applications in energy additive manufacturing, including fuel cells, batteries, hydrogen, solar cell as well as carbon capture.
Like any other manufacturing technology, AM suffers from certain limitations. Challenges and obstacles that hinder its use in energy field were discussed for each application, in Section 4. Overall, when compared to subtractive manufacturing, AM has two major limitations: accuracy and material availability. Limitations in achievable accuracy can be expressed in terms of surface quality.
Quite often AM fabricated parts show poor surface quality, when compared to smooth surfaces of parts produced by subtractive manufacturing. This stems from the layered nature of AM, where the CAD of the part is sliced into a number of layers, dependent on the layer thickness that was set prior to slicing. As a result the advantage of full automation in AM is achieved by comprising surface quality. In terms of materials selection, since AM is the umbrella term used for various technologies which use different methods to fuse materials together, but generally it can be assumed that the selection of materials in commercially available AM systems is restricted to either polymers, metals and ceramics although a number of other materials and composites can be processed via DIW.
Therefore each AM system is restricted to a particular set of materials. What makes AM appealing for energy applications, despite previously mentioned limitations, is the almost complete design freedom offered by a majority of AM technologies. To fully harness the potential of AM in fabrication of energy systems, the development of novel design concepts and strategies, that are inaccessible by conventional manufacturing, is required.
One such example, is the previously mentioned topology optimization method, which can be applied to different energy processes, since optimizer can generate intrivcate geometry based on various objective functions and constraints. As such, AM can be expected in future to become a sustainable manufacturing technology that would compete with traditional subtractive manufacturing. Adilet Zhakeyev is a PhD candidate, under supervision of Dr. Adilet received his M. His research interests cover a range of engineering topics including 3D printing, microsystems, biofabrication, biosensors and their applications for regenerative medicine.
He has strong track record on energy and carbon conversion via novel chemical, electrochemical and photocatalysis reactions. Zhakeyev A. Li Zhang, Email: nc. Jin Xuan, Email: ku. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Adv Sci Weinh v.
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Adv Sci Weinh. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Apr 26; Revised May KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing.
Keywords: additive manufacturing, batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, thermal energy. Introduction In the 21 st century, energy and climate challenges that the world is facing are intertwined. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Additive Manufacturing of Energy Materials The principles of additive manufacturing AM have been explained in detail in numerous literatures, 9 , 29 but few of them touched on the materials available for various applications, especially in energy field.
Figure 3. Material that can be processed using AM for energy applications. Structural Materials for Energy Reactors and Devices There is a variety of materials that are utilized in the fabrication of micro and nanostructures in energy applications, but they can be classified into the following categories: ceramics, glass, metals, polymers and composite materials. Figure 4. Polymers The low temperature and corrosion resistance, as well las the lack of electrical conductivity limit the use of polymers in energy reactor manufacturing.
Table 1 Main polymers used in AM. Figure 5. Metals Metals, including stainless steel, copper, aluminum, nickel and other metal composites or alloys are widely used in energy reactor manufacturing due to high temperature resistance, electrical conductivity and ability to withstand high operating pressures. Figure 6. Table 2 Metals used in AM. Inorganic Materials In certain energy applications, inorganic materials present several advantages. Table 3 Ceramic materials used in AM. Active Materials for Energy Devices Chemically active materials, such as catalysts, are at the heart of every energy related process; therefore, the choice of an appropriate active functional material is vital to ensure that the reaction occurs at all.
Figure 7. AM of Nano and Microstructures for Energy Application Devices and materials fabricated at micro and nanoscales poses unique properties of small scale for successful functionality, for instance micro and nanoscale catalysis, combustion, heat and mass transfer is limited by reaction time instead of diffusion time. Figure 8. Figure 9.
Figure Functional Microstructures Li et al. AM for Energy, the Applications Chemical and geometrical control at multiple length scales is of great importance in the design of energy systems. Chemical Reactors for Energy and Fuel Processing Ability to control the microstructure and geometry of active materials, not only provides increased surface to volume ratios, but at the same time requires less catalyst loading, which can result in process intensification and cost savings. Challenges and Future Directions In the aforementioned studies AM was mainly used to fabricate catalytic supports either directly or via templates.
Solar Cells and Photocatalytic Reactors The absorber i. Photocatalysis and Solar Fuels There are very few reports on AM manufactured photoelectrochemical flow cells. Fuel Cells and Electrolysis Cells The control of electrode microstructure composition, thickness, porosity and homogeneity plays an important role in fuel cell applications. Batteries and Capacitors Energy storing reactions, especially multielectron reactions that are difficult to achieve with micron sized active battery materials, often can become feasible and kinetically facile for the same material at nanoscale.
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Zinc Batteries In , Malone et al. Lithium Ion Batteries Considerable research efforts were undertaken on developing 3D electrode architectures of lithium ion Lion microbatteries in order to achieve high power and energy densities within a small areal footprint available to power microelectromechanical systems MEMS. Capacitors Ho et al. Challenges and Future Directions Battery fabrication is by far the most promising energy application of AM. Carbon Capture Adsorption of CO 2 by solid sorbents zeolites, metal organic frameworks and nanoporous polymers presents itself as a lower cost alternative to CO 2 capture using amine solutions.
Thermal Energy Conversion In thermal energy applications, nanoscale design can be used to develop materials with controllable thermal transport properties, for instance, graphene and CNTs have intrinsic thermal conductivities along the plane, comparable to that of diamond, however large contact resistance of such nanostructures need to be resolved.
Oilfield, Process and Water Treatments, Fuel Additives and Decontamination
Challenges and Future Directions The biggest challenge faced by utilization of AM in thermal energy applications, lies in the fact that metal AM technologies fabricate structures with internal porosity, which can have a detrimental effect on the thermal conductivity of heat exchanger. Material Development A limited number of commercially available materials can be processed via AM, which are mainly restricted to polymers and certain metals and alloys. Additive Nanomanufacturing The resolution of commercially available AM technologies needs to be significantly improved, in order to enter the realm of nanofabrication, to fully harness advantages offered by nanoscale design.
Novel Design Concepts and Strategies In the past, design and optimization of energy devices was limited to the 2D domain due to the constraints of conventional manufacturing methods. Potential for Ultimate Sustainable Manufacturing Recent advances in utilizing AM in energy applications, such as solar energy, electrochemical energy conversion and storage and hydrogen production show an enormous potential of AM as alternative manufacturing technology for renewable energy devices.
Conclusion In conclusion, we have communicated the recent progress in additive manufacturing aimed at energy chemistry and material applications. Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Notes Zhakeyev A. Contributor Information Li Zhang, Email: nc. References 1.
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